[pageinfo chapter=”body-and-mind” chapnos=”5″  chaptitle=”Body and Mind”/]

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whole beings

It has already been hard to write about the body without talking about the mind (or at least brain) and perhaps even harder to talk about the mind without involving the body. We are not two separate beings, but one person where mind and body work together.

In the past the brain was seen as a sort of control centre where sensory information about the environment comes in, is interpreted, plans are made and then orders sent out to the muscles and voice. However, this dualistic view loses a sense of integration and does not account for the full range of human experience. On the one hand, we sense our own bodies not just the world, and in some ways understand what we are thinking because of what we feel like in our bodies. On the other hand much of the loop between sensing and action happens subconsciously. In both cases the ‘little general in the head’ model falls apart.

While there is clearly some level of truth in the ‘dualist brain as control’ picture, more recent accounts instead stress the integrated nature of thought and action, focusing on our interaction with environment.

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[note] nice picture of brain as control centre with homunculus in the head ?? [/note]

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sensing ourselves

When we think of our senses, we normally think of the classic five: sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell. Psychologists call these exteroceptive senses as they tell us about the external world. However, we are also able to sense our own bodies, as when we have a stomach-ache; these are called interoceptive senses. The nerves responsible for interoception lie within the body, but in fact some of these senses also tell us a lot about our physical position in the word.

We are all familiar with the way balance is aided by the tiny semicircular canals in our ears. Fluid inside the canals is sensed by tiny hairs so that we know which way is up, and if we spin too fast the churning fluid makes us dizzy.

A sense of balance

In our ears are three semi-circular canals set at right angle to one another.  These allow us to detect ‘up’ in three dimensions.  A similar mechanism is used in mobile devices such as iPhone; three accelerometers are placed at right angles., often embedded in a single chip.

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ADXL330 3-axis accelerometer by Matt Metchley

a) inner ear b) rollercoaster c)accelerometer

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However, this is not the only way we know what way up we are; our eyes see the horizon, and our feet feel pressure from the floor. Sea-sickness is caused largely because these different ways of knowing ‘what is up’ and how you are moving conflict with one another. This is also a problem in immersive virtual reality (VR) systems (also see chapter [xref name=”ch:social-organisational-and-cultural”/]). If you wear VR goggles or are in a VR cave (small room with a virtual world projected around), then the scene will change as you move your head, simulating moving your head in the real world. However, if the virtual world simulation is not fast enough and there is even a small lag, the effect is rather like being at sea when your legs and ears tell you one thing, and your eyes something else.

It is not quite right to say we detect which way is up. Most of our senses work by detecting change. Our ear channels are best at detecting changes in direction, so, when someone is diving or buried in snow after an avalanche, it can be difficult to know which way is up because there is equal support all the way round and we can see no horizon our brains are not able to sort out a precise direction. Divers are taught to watch the bubbles as they will go upwards, and avalanche survival training suggests spitting and trying to feel the way the spit dribbles down your face.

The physics of the world also comes into play. Newtonian physics is based on the fact that you cannot tell how fast you are going without looking at something stationary. You may be travelling at a hundred miles an hour in a train, but while you look at things in the carriage you can easily feel that you are still. We even cope with acceleration; as we go round a sharp corner we simply stand at a slight angle. It is when the train moves from straight track into a curve or back again, that we notice things. Likewise, in a braking car so long as we brake evenly we simply brace our body slightly. It is the change in acceleration that we feel, what road and rail engineers call ‘jerk’.

In virtual reality the same thing happens. You are controlling your motion through the environment using a joystick or other controller and then stop suddenly. The effect can be nauseating. All is well so long as you are moving forward at a constant speed, or even accelerating or decelerating or cornering smoothly; your ear channels and body sense cannot tell the difference between standing still and being on a uniformly moving or accelerating platform. However, if you ’stop’ in the VR environment, the visual image stops dead, but your body and ears make you feel you are still moving.

As well as having a sense of balance, we also know where parts of our body are. Close your eyes, then touch your nose with your finger – no problem, you ‘know’ where your arm is relative to your body and so can move it towards your nose. This sense of the location of your body, called proprioception, is based on various sensing nerves in your muscles tendons and joints and is crucial to any physical activity. People who lose this ability due to disease find it very difficult to walk around or to grasp or hold things, even if they have full movement. They have to substitute looking at their limbs for knowing where they are and have to concentrate hard just to stay upright.

Proprioception is particularly important when using eyes-free devices, for example, in a car where you can reach for a control without looking at it. In practice we do not just use proprioception alone, but also peripheral vision and touch during such interactions. Indeed, James Gibson [[Gi79]] has argued that our vision and hearing should also be regarded as serving a proprioceptive purpose as well as an extroceptive one, because we are constantly positioning ourselves with respect to the world by virtue of what we see and hear.

the body shapes the mind – posture and emotion

It makes sense that we need to sense our bodies to know if we have an upset stomach (and hence avoid eating until it is better), or to be able reach for things without looking. However, it seems that our interoceptive senses do more than that, they do not just provide a form of ‘input’ to our thoughts and decisions, but shape our thoughts and emotions at a deep level.

You have probably heard of smile therapy: deliberately smiling in order to make yourself feel happier. Partly this builds on the fact that when you smile other people tend to smile back, and if other people smile at you that makes you feel happy. But that is not the whole story. Experiments have shown that there is an effect even when there is no-one else to smile back at you and even when you don’t know you are smiling. In a typical experiment researchers ask subjects to sit while their faces are manipulated to either be smiling or sad. Although there is some debate about the level of efficacy, there appears to be measurable effects so that even when the subjects are not able to identify the expression set on their faces, their reports on how they feel show that having a ‘happy’ face made them feel happier! [[Ja84,Ma87]]

This is at first odd, it makes sense that unless we cover our emotions we look how we feel, but this suggests we actually feel how we look! In fact, research on emotion suggests that higher-level emotion often does include this reflective quality. If your heart rate is racing, but something good is happening, then it must be very good. Indeed, romantic novels are full of descriptions of pounding hearts! Effectively some of how we feel is ‘in our heads’, but some is in our bodies. This can get ‘confused’ sometimes. Imagine a loud bang has frightened you and then you realise it is just a child who has burst a balloon. You might find yourself laughing

hysterically, the situation is not really that funny, but the heightened sense of arousal generated by the fear is still there when you realise everything is fine and maybe a bit amusing; your body is still aroused and so your brain interprets the combination as being VERY funny.

In the last chapter we discussed creativity and physical action, which is as much about the mind and body working together as about the mind alone. There are well established links between mood and creativity, with positive moods on the whole tending to increase creativity compared with negative moods. One of the experimental measures used to measure ‘creativity’ is to ask subjects to create lists of novel ideas; for example, “how many uses can you think of for a brick”. In one set of experiments the researchers asked subjects to either place their hands on the table in front of them and press downwards, or to put their hands under the table and press up. While pressing they were asked to perform various ‘idea list’ tasks. Those who pressed up generated more ideas than those who pressed down. The interpretation by the researchers was that the upward pressing is making a positive “come hither” gesture, whereas the pressing down is more like a “go away” gesture. The positive gesture then increases the creativity. Again body affects mind.

cybernetics of the body

[[@sc:cybernetics-body]]

We have seen how the body can be regarded as a mechanical thing with levers (bones), pivots (joints) and pulleys (tendons). However, with our brains in control (taking the dualist view), we are more like what an engineer would regard as a ‘control system’ or ‘cybernetic system’. The study of controlled systems goes back many hundreds of years to the design of clocks and later the steam engine.

There are two main classes of such systems. The simplest are ‘open loop’ control systems (fig. [[fg:open-loop-control]]). In these the controller performs actions on the environment according to some settings, process or algorithm. For example, you turn a simple electric fire on to keep warm; it generates the exact amount of heat according to the setting.

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cybernetics-open-loop

[[@fg:open-loop-control]] open loop control

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This form of control system works well when the environment and indeed the operation of the control system itself, is predictable. However, open-loop control systems are fragile. If the environment is not quite as expected (perhaps the room gets too hot) they fail.

More robust control systems use some sort of feedback from the environment to determine how to act to achieve a desired state; this is called {{closed-loop control}} (fig. [[fg:closed-loop-control]]). In the case of the electric fire it may have a temperature sensor, instead of turning it on to produce a predetermined power, you instead set a desired temperature and the fire turns on if it is below the temperature and off if it is above.

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cybernetics-closed-loop

[[@fg:closed-loop-control]]closed loop control

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One of the earliest explicit uses of closed loop control was the centrifugal governor on steam boilers (fig. [[fg:centrifugal-governor]]). Escaping steam from the boiler is routed so that it spun a small ‘merry go round’ arrangement of two heavy balls. As the balls swung faster they rose in the air. However, the balls are also linked to a valve so as they rise they open the valve releasing steam. If the pressure is too high it makes the balls spin faster, which opens the valve and reduces the pressure. If the pressure is too low, the balls do not spin much, the valve closes and the pressure increases.

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[[@fg:centrifugal-governor]] Centrifugal Governor

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This is an example of negative feedback, which tends to lead to stable states. It is also possible to have positive feedback, where a small change from the central state leads to more and more change. Imagine if the universal governor were altered so that the rising balls closed the valve and vice versa. In nature positive feedback often leads to catastrophes such as an avalanche, small amounts of moving snow makes more snow move …

Box on +ve/-ve feedback qualitative impact: shape, clouds vs. bubbles, spinning coin, group decisions

At first positive feedback does not seem very useful, however it can be used to produce very rapid ‘hair trigger’ responses. In our bodies we find a mixture of different kinds of control mechanisms. For example, the balance between T1 and T2 immune cells has a positive feedback where too many T1 cells leads to more T1 production double check. This means that the body can react very rapidly to infection. Of course another negative feedback loop is used to control the level of the cells when the infection stops. It is this second control loop that fails in some auto-immune diseases such as AIDS.

When we want to position something we use hand-eye coordination. Seeing where our hands are and then adjusting their position until it is right. Look at the dot below, then reach your finger out to touch it. You may be able to notice yourself slow down as you get close and make minor adjustments to your finger position. That is closed loop control using negative feedback.

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black-dot

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Of course, recall that our bodies are like networked systems with delays between eye and action of around 200ms (chap.[[ch:body]]). As these minor adjustments depend on the feedback from eye to muscle movement, we can only manage about 5 adjustments per second.

These time delays are one of the explanations for Fitts’ Law, a psychological result discovered by Paul Fitts in the 1950s. Fitts drew two parallel target lines some distance apart on a table. His subjects were asked to tap the first target, then the second, then back to the first repeatedly as fast as they could [[Fi54]].

He found that smaller targets took longer; not surprising as it is harder to position your finger or a pointer on a smaller target. He also found that putting the targets further apart meant his subjects took longer; again not surprising as the arm has to move further.

However, what was surprising was the way these two effects precisely cancelled out: if you made the targets twice as big, and placed them twice as far away, the average time taken was the same. All that mattered was the ratio between them; in mathematical terms it was ’scale invariant’.

In addition, one might think that for a given target size the time would increase linearly, so that each 10cm moved would take roughly similar time, just like driving down a road, or walking. However instead he found that time increased logarithmically. That is the difference between moving 10cm and 20cm was the same as the difference between moving 20 cm and 40 cm – when the targets got further apart the subjects moved their arms faster. This gave rise to what is known as Fitts’ Law

time =  a + b * log( distance / size)

footnote about variants needed

Fitts called the log ratio the ‘index of difficulty’ (ID)1.

ID = log( distance / size )

This law has proved very influential in human-computer interaction. It appears to hold equally when a mouse is used to move a pointer on the screen to hit an icon as it does to moving your hand to hit a strip. Further studies have shown that it even works when ‘acceleration’ is added to the mouse meaning that the mouse speed or other complications are added. The formula has even been embodied in an ISO standard (ISO 9241-9) for comparing mice and similar pointing devices [[IS00]].

When Fitts did his experiments Shannon had recently finished his work on measuring information [[Sh48,SW63]], where log terms also appear. This led Fitts to describe the results in terms of the information capacity of the motor system. He measured the index of difficulty in ‘bits’ and when ‘b’ is ‘throughput’ (1/b) gives the information capacity of the channel in bits/second, just like measuring the speed of a computer network.

An alternative (and complementary) account is in terms of the corrective movements and delays described above; that is a cybernetic model of the closed loop control system.

Our muscles are powerful enough to move nearly full range in a single ‘hand-eye’ feedback time of 200ms. So when you see the target your brain ‘tells’ your hand to move to the seen location. However, your muscle movement is not perfect and you don’t quite hit the target on the first try, but are closer. Your brain sees the difference and tells your arms to move the smaller distance, and so on until you are within the target, and you have finished. If you assume that the movement error for large movements is proportionately larger, then the ‘log’ law results.

The ‘information capacity’ of the motor system measured in bits/second is generated by a combination of the accuracy of your muscles and the delays in your nerves – the physical constraints of your body translated into digital terms.

[figure]

Series of hand movements towards target (from [[Dx03]]). Note, exaggerated distances: the first ballistic movement is typically up to 90% of the final distance.
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Notes: (1) Fitts’ Law also includes a fixed parameter irrespective of the distance moved that corresponds to the time to start and stop movements; (2) The parameters a and b vary between individuals and depend on the apparatus/devices used, but are constant for a given individual with a single device; (3) The formula given.

Forever Cyborgs

We saw in Chapter [[ch:body]] that prosthetics including the simple walking stick, are very old. More fundamentally hominid tool use predates homo-sapiens by several million years – from its very beginning, our species have been tool users – augmenting our bodies. This is particularly evident in Fitts’ Law, which is often seen as a fundamental psychological law of the human body and mind.

Draw a small cross on a piece of paper and put it on a table in front of you. Put your hands on your lap, look at the cross and then, with your eyes closed, try to put your hand over the cross.  Move the paper around and try again.. So long as it is in reach you will probably find you can cover it with your hand on virtually every attempt.

Now do the same with just your finger and wrist. Rest your hand on this book, and focus on a single letter not too far from your hand. As before close your eyes, but this time try to cover the letter with your finger. Again, you will probably find that, so long as the letter is close enough to touch without moving your arm (wrist and finger only), you can cover the letter wth your finger virtually every time.

Fitts’ Law is about successive corrections, but in fact our arms and fingers are accurate to the level required by the effector (hand, or finger tip) at their end in a single ballistic movement. The corrections are only needed when you have a tool (mouse pointer, pencil, stick) that has an end that is smaller than your hand/finger tip.

In other words Fitts’ Law, a fundamental part of our human nature, is a law of the extended human body.

We really have always been cyborgs.

the adapted body

When something is simple people often say, “even a child could do it”. For computers and hi-tech appliances this is not really appropriate as we all know that it is those who are older who most often have problems! However, one can apply a different criterion: “could a caveman use it”. Now by this we do not mean some sort of time-machine dropping an iPod into a Neolithic woman’s hands, but recognising that there has not been that much time, barely 10,000 years, since the first sophisticated societies, not enough time for our bodies or brains to have significantly evolved. That is, while we live in a technological society and learn very different things as we grow up in such a world, yet still, we have the bodies and brains roughly similar to those of our cave-dwelling ancestors. If we did have a time machine and brought a healthy orphan baby forward from 10,000 years ago, it is likely that she would grow normally and be no different from a baby born today.

However, while humans were hunter gatherers 10,000 years ago, homo sapiens as a species had over 100,000 years of development before that and our species is itself part of a process going back many millions of years. Given this, it seems likely that:

(a)    we are well adapted to the world

(b)    the world we are adapted to is natural not technological

James Gibson, a psychologist studying perception and particularly vision, was one of the first to take this into account in the development of what later came to be called “ecological psychology”. Previous research had considered human vision as a fairly abstract process turning a 2D pattern of colour into a 3D model in the head. However, Gibson saw it as an intimate part of an acting human engaged in the environment. [[Gi79]]

Gibson argued that aspects of the environment ‘afford’ various possibilities for actiondo we need to cover affordances?. For example, a hollow in a stone affords filling with water, a rock of a certain height affords sitting upon. These possibilities are independent of whether we take advantage of them or whether we even know they exist. That is an invisible rock would just as much afford sitting upon as a visible one. However, if our minds are bodies are adapted to be part of this environment then our perceptions will be precisely adapted to recognise and respond to the visual and other sensory effects caused by the affordances of the things in the world.

In addition, Gibson argues against a snapshot view of vision, as if our brains were interpreting a series of still images and making sense of each. Instead, he emphasised the continuous flow of visual and other sensory inputs and the way these form part both of ‘doing’ actions, but also of ’sensing’ actions as you turn your head to hear or see better.

Evolutionary psychologists, who we mentioned earlier in the context of the ’Swiss Army knife’ model of specialised intelligences, try to understand how our cognitive systems have evolved and hence what they may be capable of today. The ’social version’ of the Wason card test comes from these studies. Reasoning from possible past lifestyles and environments to current abilities, is of course potentially problematic, but can also be powerful as a design heuristic. If you are expecting someone using your product or device to use some cognitive, perceptual or motor ability that has no use in a ‘wild’ environment, then it is likely that it is will be impossible or require extensive training.

Wason card test and social intelligence

covered in earlier chapter

The Wason card test [[Wa66]] has been heavily studied in psychology as a way to test aspects of human reasoning. The basic test presents the subject with four cards as follows:

They are told that each card has a letter on one side and a number on the other and asked to turn over as few cars as possible in order to verify the rule “if there is a vowel one side then there is an even number on the other”. The most common answer (about 2/3 of subjects) is to turn over the ‘E’ and ‘2’ — is that what you thought? In fact the ‘right’ answer is the ‘E’ and the ‘7’. The problem is that this is a falsification task, but as humans we naturally look for confirmatory evidence.

Lena Cosmides tried a slightly different task, something like the following. Imagine a sociologist has been studying the use of an ‘honesty box’ for selling newspapers. The newspapers are in a pile and people can freely take a newspaper, but are supposed to put money in the box. As each person comes along, the sociologist notes on one side of a card whether they took a newspaper and on the other whether they put money in. The following are four of the cards. The task is to turn over as few cars as possible to verify the rule “if someone takes newspaper, they pay for it”.

Logically this is identical to the original cards, but here around 2/3 of people choose the ‘right’ answer (the cards saying ‘paper’ and ‘no £’). Cosmides interpreted this as evidence a specialised ‘social’ intelligence that understands human deceit [[Co89]].

One example of what?is when we have pauses in a sequence of actions. In the wild, if a sabre tooth tiger appears you run, not wait for a moment and then run. However, various sports and also various user interfaces, require a short pause, for example, the short pause needed between selecting a file on-screen and clicking the filename to edit it; click too fast and the file will instead open. While we can do these actions by explicitly waiting for some indication that it is time for the next action, it is very hard to proceduralise this kind of act–pause–act sequence, it requires much practice in sport, and in the case of file name editing is something that nearly every experienced computer user still occasionally gets wrong.

Another example is the way we can ‘extend’ our body when driving a car or using a computer mouse. The ability to work ‘through’ technology like this is quite amazing. Mice often have different acceleration parameters, may be held at a slight angle so that they do not track horizontally, or even be held upside down by some left-handed users so that moving the mouse left moves the screen cursor right. However, after some practice the Fitts’ Law behaviour described earlier returns, we are able to slickly operate them almost as easily as we point with our fingers. The sense of ‘oneness’ with the technology is evident when things go wrong. Recall a slightly icy road where just for a moment traction is not perfect, or perhaps the clutch starts to fail so that as you rev the engine the car does not accelerate. If the situation is dangerous you may feel frightened, but if not you get a sort of odd feeling as if it were your own body not responding properly. You and the car are a sort of cyborg [[Dx02]]..

In fact, we go on adapting during our lifetime. One of the great successes of the human is our plasticity, the ability of our brains to change while we live in order to accommodate new situations. So while we may start off just like a cave-baby, as adults growing and living in a technological world, our minds and bodies become technologically adapted. Brain scans of taxi-drivers show whole areas devoted to spatial navigation far larger than in normal (non taxi driver) brains. This is not so much physical growth but more that the part dedicated to this function is making use of neighbouring parts of the brain, which would have otherwise been used for other purposes.

This remapping can work very quickly. If a child is born with two fingers joined with a web of skin, the brain scans show effectively a single region corresponding to the joined fingers. However, within weeks of operating to separate the fingers, separate brain areas become evident. Similarly, in experiments where participants had fingers strapped together, the distinct brain areas for the two fingers began to fuse after a few weeks.. ref?

In comparison change in the body takes longer, but of course we know that if we exercise muscles grow stronger and larger. In addition, any activity that requires movement and coordination creates interlinked physical and neurological changes. If you do sports your hand-eye coordination for the relevant limbs and actions will improve.

Dundee University Medical School measures the digital dexterity of new students; well-controlled hands are especially important in surgery where a slip could cost a life. While individual students vary, overall dexterity did not vary much from year to year; that is until recently. In the last few years, students (on average) have had greater dexterity in their thumbs than in the past. Indeed their thumbs, rather than being a relatively clumsy digit, useful only for grasping, now have the same dexterity as index fingers. This they attribute to the PlayStation generation; it probably will, if anything, change further as generation-TXT comes of age.

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plans and action

One of the authors was having breakfast. He served himself a bowl of grapefruit segments and then went to make his tea. While making the tea he went to the fridge to get a pint of milk, but after getting the milk from the fridge he only just stopped himself in time as he was about to pour the milk onto the grapefruit!

What went wrong?

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Older models of cognition focused on planned activity. You start with something you want to achieve (a goal), then decide how you are going to achieve it (a plan), and finally do the things that are needed (execution). There are many very successful methods that use this approach. Two of the older and most well known in HCI are GOMS (goals, operators, methods and section) [[CM83]] and HTA (hierarchical task analysis) [[AD67,Sh95]]. GOMS is focused on very low-level practiced tasks, such as correcting mistakes in typing, whereas HTA looks more at higher-level activity such as booking a hotel room. Making tea is somewhere at the intersection of both methods, but we will look at HTA as it is slightly easier to explain.

?? BOX on NYNEX GOMS analysis to show it can be useful too!

HTA basically takes a goal and beaks it down into smaller and smaller sequences of actions (the tasks) that will achieve the goal. The origins of hierarchical task analysis are in Taylorist time-and-motion studies for ’scientific management’ of workspaces, decomposing repetitive jobs into small units in the most ‘efficient’ way. Later, during the Second World War new recruits had to be trained how to use relatively complex equipment, for example, stripping down a rifle. However, this needed to be done quickly in order to get them onto the battlefield, and in such a way that under pressure they could automatically do the right actions. Hierarchical task analysis provided a way to create training materials and documentation for this.

While HTA was originally developed for ‘work’ situations, it can be applied to many activities. Figure [[fg:HTA-cup-of-tea]] shows an HTA for the task for making a mug of tea (with a teabag, not proper tea from a teapot!). The diagram shows the main tasks and sub-tasks.

[figure]

hta-cup-of-tea

[[@fg:HTA-cup-of-tea]] HTA for making a mug of tea 

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The task hierarchy tells you what steps you need to do, but in addition there is also a plan saying in what order to do the steps, for example, for task 4, the plan might be:

Plan 4.
     if  milk not out do 4.1
     then do 4.2

If you follow the steps in the right order according to the plan, then you get a mug of tea. Easy.… but why did it go wrong with the grapefruit?

You might have noticed that the world of task analysis is very close to an open-control system. It is not entirely so, as the plan for Task 4 includes some perception of the world “if milk not out”, but predominantly it is an inside-to-out flow of command and control. It assumes that we keep careful track of what we are doing in our heads and translate this into action in the world; but, if this were always the case, then why the near mistake with the grapefruit?

One explanation is that we simply make mistakes sometimes! However, not all mistakes are equally likely. One would be unlikely to pour milk onto the bare kitchen worktop or onto a plate of bacon and eggs. The milk on grapefruit is a form of capture error: the bowl containing the grapefruit might on other occasions hold cornflakes; when that is the case and you are standing in the kitchen with milk in your hand, having just got it out of the fridge, it would be quite appropriate to pour the milk into the bowl.

Staying close to the spirit of HTA we can imagine a plan for making tea that us more like:

if milk not out do 4.1
 when milk in hand do 4.2

However, if we were to analyse “prepare bowl of cornflakes”, we would have a rule that says:

when milk in hand pour into bowl

So when you have milk in your hand, what is the ‘correct’ thing to do; pour into a mug or pour into a bowl? One way is to remember what you are in the middle of doing, but the mistake suggests that actually the author’s actions were driven by the world, the fact that there is a mug on the worktop is saying “please fill me” … but so also does a cereal bowl. He was acting more in a stimulus-response fashion than one based on pre-planned actions.

Preparing breakfast is a practiced activity where, if anywhere, forms of task analysis should work. In more complex activities many argue that it is a far too simplistic view of the world. Now-a-days most using such methods would regard task analysis as a useful, but simplified model. However, in the mid-1980s when HCI has developing as a field, the dominant cognitive science thinking was largely reductionist. A few works challenged this, but probably most influentially Lucy Suchman’s “Plans and Situated Actions” [[Su87]]. Suchman was working in Xerox and used ethnographic techniques borrowed from anthropology. She observed that when a field engineer tried to fix a malfunctioning photocopier, they did not go through a set process or procedure, but instead would open the photocopier and respond to what they saw. To the extent that when plans were used they were adapted and deployed in a situated fashion driven as much by the environment, as what they saw with their eyes in the machine.

In fact cognitive scientists have their own version of this and in artificial intelligence new problems are often tackled using means-ends analysis. For this, one starts off with a goal (e.g. make tea), which one starts to solve, but then gets blocked by some impasse (no milk), which then gives rise to a sub-goal (get milk from fridge). However, this does not capture the full range of half-planned, half-recognised activities we see in day to day life.

In reality, we have many ways in which individual actions are strung together: some we are explicitly aware of doing others are implicit or sub-conscious, some involve internally-driven pre-planned or learnt actions, others are driven by the environment (fig. [[fg:types-of-activity]]). From watching a user it is often hard to tell which is at work, and it is hard even to introspect as once we think about what we are doing we tend to change it! In fact this is why errors, like the grapefruit bowl, are so valuable as they often reveal what is going on below our level of awareness.

[figure]

internally driven environment driven
explicit (a) following known
plan of action
(b)  situated action,
means–end analysis
implicit (c) proceduralised
or routine action
(d)  stimulus–response
reaction
[[@fg:types-of-activity]] types of activity (from [[Dx08]])

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In most activities there will also be a mix of these kinds and over time frequent environment-driven actions (b) are learnt and end up being proceduralised or routine actions (c) – practice makes perfect. Anyone who has practiced a sport or music will have found this for themselves.

Iconic case study: Nintendo Wii

When the Wii was launched in 2006, it brought with it a new interaction paradigm. Like the iPhone, it allows us to bring learned gestures and associations from our day to day physical world into our physical-digital interactions. In doing so it opened digital gaming up to a whole new market by removing the barriers between the physical controls and their digital responses. The Wii brings with it a lot of interesting case material on how we perceive physical space. For example two players stand side by side playing Wii Sports Tennis. One “serves” to the other “diagonally” across the court. If we assume that the player “receiving” is on right handed and on the left hand side of the court (from their perspective), they will be forced to receive the ball “backhanded”. No physical movement has taken place but the digital world has forced a perceptual changed that has required a physical response.

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[note]Nintendo do not allow image usage, this image is for editorial only so we need to get advice[/note]

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the embodied mind

[[@sc:embodied-mind]]

As well as perception being intimately tied to the physical world, our cognition itself is expressed within the world. When we add up large numbers we use a piece of paper, when we solve a jigsaw puzzle we do not just stare and then put all the pieces in place but try them one by one. Some studying such phenomena talk about ‘distributed cognition’ seeing our cognition and thinking as not just being in our head, but distributed between our heads, the world and often other people [[HH00, Hu95]]. Early studies looked at Micronesian sailors, navigating without modern instruments for hundreds of miles between tiny islands. They found that no single person held the whole navigation in their heads, but it was somehow worked out between them [[Hu83, Hu95]].

More radically still, some philosophers talk about our mind being embodied, not just in the sense of being physically embodied in our brain, but in the sense that our brains, bodies and the things we manipulate all together achieve ‘mind-like’ things [[Cl98]]. If you are doing a sum on a piece of paper, the paper, the pencil and your hand are just as much part of your ‘mind’ as your brain.

If you think that is far fetched, imagine losing your phone SIM cardis this relevant enough? maybe cloud storage?. Where are the boundaries of your social mind?

Theorists advocating strong ideas of the embodied mind would argue that we are creatures fitted most well to a perception–action cycle and where possible are parsimonious with mental representations allowing the environment to encode as much as possible.

In general evolved creatures will neither store nor process information in costly ways when they can use the structure of the environment and their operations on it as a convenient stand-in for the information-processing operations concerned.” ([[Cl89]] as quoted in [[Cl98]])

Clark calls this the “007 principle” as it can be summarised as: “know only as much as you need to know to get the job done” [[Cl98]].

In the natural world this means, for example, that we do not need to remember what the weather is like now as we can feel the wind on our cheeks or the rain on our hands. In a more complex setting this can include changes made to the world (e.g. the bowl on the worktop) and even changes made precisely for the reason of offloading information processing or memory (e.g. ticking off the shopping list). Indeed this is one of the main foci of distributed cognition accounts of activity [[HH00]].

It is not necessary to take a strong embodied mind or even distributed cognition viewpoint to see that this parsimony is a normal aspect of human behaviour – why bother to remember the precise order of doing things to make my mug of tea when it is obvious what to do when I have milk in my hand and black tea in the mug?

Of course parsimony of internal representation does not mean that there is no internal representation at all. The story of the grapefruit bowl would be less amusing if it happened all the time. While eating breakfast it is not unusual for to have both a grapefruit bowl and a mug of tea out at the same time, but the author in question had never before tried to pour milk on the grapefruit. As well as the reactive behaviour “when milk in hand pour in cup”, there is also some practiced idea of what follows what (plan) and some feeling of being “in the middle of making tea” (context, schema).

Parsimony cuts both ways if it is more efficient to ‘store’ information in the world we will do that, if it is more efficient to store it in our heads then we do that instead. Think of an antelope being chased by a lion. The antelope does not constantly run with its head turned back to see the lion chasing after it; if it did it would fall over or crash into a tree. Instead it just knows in its head that the lion is there and runs.

External cognition: lessons for design

In design this means we have to be aware that:

(i)    people will not always do things in the ‘right order’

(ii)    if there are two things with the same ‘pre-condition’ (e.g. milk in hand), then it is likely that a common mistake will be to do the wrong succeeding action

(iii)    we should try to give people cues in the environment (e.g. lights on a device) to help them disambiguate what comes next (clarifying context)

(iv)    where people are doing complex activities we should try to give them ways to create ‘external representations’ in the environment

[[#bibliography]]

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[[CM83]] Card, Stuart; Thomas P. Moran and Allen Newell (1983). The Psychology of Human Computer Interaction. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-89859-859-1.

[[Cl89]] Clark, A.: Microcognition,: Philosophy, Cognitive Science and Parallel Processing. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1989)

[[Cl98]] Clark, A. (1998). Being There: Putting Brain, Body and the World Together Again. MIT Press.

[[Co89]] Cosmides, L. (1989). The Logic of Social Exchange: Has natural selection shaped how humans reason? Studies with the Wason selection task. Cognition, 31:187–276

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[[Fi54]] Paul M. Fitts (1954). The information capacity of the human motor system in controlling the amplitude of movement. Journal of Experimental Psychology, volume 47, number 6, June 1954, pp. 381-391. (Reprinted in Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 121(3):262–269, 1992).

[[Gi79]] Gibson, J. (1979). The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. New Jersey, USA, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

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[[Hu83]] Hutchins E. Understanding Micronesian navigation. In D. Gentner & A. Stevens (Eds.), Mental models. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp 191-225, 1983.

[[Hu95]] Hutchins, E. (1995). Cognition in the Wild. MIT Press.

[[IS00]] International Standard (2000). ISO 9241-9, “Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals– Part 9: Requirements for non-keyboard input devices”

[[Ja84]] Laird, J. (1984). The Real Role of Facial Response in the Esperience of Emotion: A Reply to tourangeau and Ellsworth, and Others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1984, Vol 47, No 4, 909-917.

[[Ma87]] Matsumoto, D. (1987). The role of facial response in the Experience of Emotion: More Methodological Problems and a Meta-Analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. April 1987, vol 52, No4, 769-774.

[[Sh95]] Shepherd, A. (1995). Task analysis as a framework for examining HCI tasks, In Monk, A. and Gilbert N. (Eds.) Perspectives on HCI: Diverse Approaches. 145–174. Academic Press.

[[Sh48]] Shannon, C. (1948). A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell System Technical Journal 27 (July and October): pp. 379–423, 623–656. http://plan9.bell-labs.com/cm/ms/what/shannonday/shannon1948.pdf.

[[SW63]]  Shannon, C. and W. Weaver (1963). The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Univ. of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252725484.

[[Su87]] Suchman, L. (1987). Plans and Situated Actions: The problem of human–machine communication. Cambridge University Press,

[[Wa66]] Wason, P. C. (1966). Reasoning. In B. Foss (Ed.), New horizons in psychology. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. pp. 135–151

[[/bibliography]]


  1. The details of the formula vary in different sources, as there are variants for different shaped targets, and depending on, whether you measure distance to the centre or edge of a target edge, and diameter or radius for size. 

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